Hedeoma pulegioides, American Pennyroyal, (Labiatae the Mint Family), 1-4 dm in height, pink floral rays, habitat: upland woods (102, 103).
The American Indian tribe, the Iroquois, steeped Pennyroyal leaves and drank the resulting tea to cure headaches. As a domestic American medicine it was used to induce sweating in the early stages of colds. It was also employed to promote menstruation, and with brewer's yeast and raw linseed oil dress burns. It was used to check nosebleeds when drinking the tea while taking a hot bath. Recent scientific findings show that it can act as a stimulant, an aromatic, a carminative, and stomachic (267).
Helianthus maximiliani, Sunflower, (Compositea, the Composite Family), 0.5-3 m in height, yellow flowers, habitat: prairies and waste places, often in sandy soil (102, 103).
Historically, physicians and American Indian groups used a flower tincture of Sunflower to treat lung disease. Physicians also used the seed oil to treat cough, dysentery, and bladder and kidney problems, and the stem pith as a diuretic and treatment for fever and inflammation. Indian groups used the flowers for chest pains, a leaf tea for fever, and root tea for rheumatism. Externally, leaves were poulticed for use on snakebite and spider bites, sores and swellings. The plant juice was used to treat cuts. Modern studies have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-cell-modulating effects of the terpenoid extracts (6, 88).
It has been shown to produce acetylenic aldehydes, ketones and epoxides (17 Carbons) and is known to contain linoleic acid, also known as 9,12-linoleic acid or linolic acid C18H32O2, in its seed fats (174, 238).
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