Geranium fremontii

Geranium fremontii

Geranium fremontii, Wild Geranium, (Geraniaceae, the Geranium Family), 3-7 dm in height, pink floral rays, habitat: common in woodlands (102, 103).

High in tannins, which have antibacterial, antiviral, and astringent properties, most wild Geranium spp. have been used interchangeably as folk remedies to treat inflamed mucous membranes, and externally to stop bleeding. Tea has been used as a gargle for sore throats, aphthous stomatitis, thrush, and pyorrhea, and to treat gastric ulcers, diarrhea, bleeding, nosebleed, hemorrhoids, bloody urin, kidney inflammation, excess menstruation, wounds, children's rashes, diabetes, leukorrhea, acne, and conjunctivitis (6, 88).

It also produces geranyl pyrophosphate, ostruthin, and bergamottin, geranylphenols (97).


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Grindelia squarrosa

Grindelia squarrosa

Grindelia squarrosa, Gum-plant; Rosin-weed, (Compositea, the Composite Family), 1-10 dm in height, yellow flowers, habitat: open or waste places (102, 103).

It is known to produce grindelol, saponin, tannin, and robustic acid. American Indian groups used Grindelia tops and flowering heads for respiratory, skin, genitourinary, and digestive ailments including colds, coughs, pertussis, pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and asthma. It was also used for kidney pain and other kidney problems, edema, cystitis, to lessen and ease menstruation, as an abortifacient, to treat gonorrhea and syphilis, to relieve stomachache and colic, and for liver problems. Roots were used by Indian groups to treat coughs and digestive ailments. A wash or poultice of the tops was used externally on scabs, cuts, sores, swellings, and other skin diseases. The gum from the tops was rubbed on the eyelids to treat snow blindness (88, 267).

It is known to contain linoleic acid, also known as 9,12-linoleic acid or linolic acid C18H32O2, in its seed fats (174, 238).


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