Euphorbia esula, Leafy Spurge, (Euphorbiaceae, the Spurge Family), 3-7 dm in height, yellow-green floral rays, habitat: widely established in N. America (102, 103).
It produces seeds containing linoleic, oleic, linolenic, conjugated polythenoid acids, D-pinitol, L-inositol, and euphol (97, 238).
Galium aparine, Cleaver, Bedstraw (Rubiaceae, the Madder Family), 1-10 dm in height, white flowers, habitat: damp ground usually in shade (102, 103).
Tea made from Cleaver stems and leaves was traditionally used for nodules or lymphatic swellings, fevers, painful urination, kidney inflammation, urinary calculi, kidney stones, cystitis, and edema. It was used as a blood purifier, folk cancer remedy, and diuretic. Externally, tea was applied as wash for inflammation, infections, rashes, eczema, psoriasis, leprosy, and burns. American Indians adopted European uses to treat skin problems, including poison ivy itch and for urinary tract problems, including gonorrhea. Galium spp, contain iridoid glycosides that are laxative, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic in laboratory tests (88).
Cleavers are also known to produce 2-Methylanthraquinone, C15H10O2 (97, 174).
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