Equisetum laevigatum, Horsetail, Scouring Rush, (Equisetaceae, the Horsetail Family), 3-10 dm in height, no floral rays, habitat: meadows, prairies, and banks (102, 103).
Horsetail contains silica that is highly absorbable and can be utilized to promote bone growth and collagen formation, two very important functions for menopausal women. It has a high content of minerals in general, and is responsible for reduction of edema in some cases of arthritis (267).
Horsetail was commonly used in European herbal medicine to prevent and treat urinary stones, to increase urine flow, and to stop bleeding. Studies confirm hemostatic and mild diuretic properties. Because of high silica content (up to 80 percent water-soluble silicic acid), Horsetail extracts used in products for strengthening hair, nails, and bones. It was approved in Germany for treatment of post-traumatic edema and in irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract, and kidney and bladder stones; externally for wounds, burns (88).
Eupatorium rugosum, White Snake Root, (Compositae, the Composite Family), 3-15 dm in height, white flowers, habitat: woods (102, 103).
It is known to contain linoleic acid, also known as 9,12-linoleic acid or linolic acid C18H32O2, in its seed fats (174, 238).
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