Pictured to the right of center is a tangential flow, plate and frame, ultrafiltration (UF) unit that is chemically sterilizable in place. It is used for down stream processing, protein separation and purification, and/or dialysis. This type of UF system utilizes "tangential flow" to prevent clogging. A high flow of pressurized feed (fermentation broth) passes over the UF membrane at a tangent to the membrane surface forcing the permeate to pass through. This tends to inhibit clogging even with a "transmembrane pressure" differential pressure of 10 psi between the filtrate and retentate.
This unit can accommodate UF membrane plates, which give up to 15 ft2 of filtration area. It can be fitted with membranes of the following molecular weight cut off (MWCO): 1K, 3K, 5K, 8K, 10K, 30K, 50K, 70K, 100K, 300K, 500K, 1000K, 0.16um. These membranes can be purchased in the following materials of construction:
The membrane ultra-filtration unit is built by Pall Life Sciences. The supporting equipment i.e. pumps, storage tanks, water purifiers and filters, etc. are provided by other manufacturers (69, 115, 219, 255, 258).
This is a partial view of a 40 liter airlift Bioreactor by LH Fermentation Ltd. It is simply a glass pipe within a larger glass pipe. At the top of these glass pipes is a stainless steel ring called a "probe belt". The probe belt contains six probe ports that can be fitted with probes for monitoring dissolved oxygen, pH temperature, pressure, cell density, ammonia, or other variables.
Above the probe ring is a much larger diameter glass pipe chamber that allows bubbles to coalesce and form the operating volume level. It is to this liquid level that a foam probe would sense the build up of foam thus enabling automatic antifoam addition. Also, acid, base and in the case of fed-batch or continuous feed mode of operation the fresh nutrients are also added to this liquid level.
An airlift fermenter is designed to use the action of incoming sparge aeration bubbles introduced by the sparge ring at the base of central glass pipe. The rising action of the bubbles causes a circulation up through the central pipe and down along wall of the outer glass pipe and is considered to be "Low Shear" with respect to the plant or animal cells being grown.
This "low shear" agitation is thought to be superior to agitation by impellers or propellers because it is less damaging to cell walls in animal and plant cultures. This circulation effect brought about by the aeration bubbles allows the broth or medium to pass heating coils for temperature control, a pH probe to allow pH control, a dissolved oxygen probe to monitor and control dissolved oxygen (45, 58, 93, 110, 199, 255).
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